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TCP/IP architecture model

by terhunetech on April 6, 2011

1. Network interface(Information hyperlink) layer
2. Network layer
3. Transport layer
4. Application layer

Network interface layer
The lowest layer with the TCP/IP product. Its job is to provide entry towards the transmission bodily medium and it differs based on the implementation of the medium.

Network layer
The network layer offers network addressing, routing and datagram transmission. Utilized protocols which will be of interest additional regarding DHCP are IP and ARP.

IP protocol
It’s the fundamental protocol with the network layer and in common the internet as being a entire. It sends datagrams, that are independent models that contain info concerning the destination, supply and also the sequence number of the datagram. The sequence quantity is used for message reconstruction, because the delivery buy with the datagrams might not be the exact same as their order within the message and delivery reliability is not assured whatsoever.
IP protocol versions:
” IP v4 – 32 bit addresses. Offers roughly four billion unique addresses which are not sufficient at existing occasions.
” IP v6 – 128 bit addresses. The transition to v6 will bring (is bringing) higher security, QoS, packet segmentation and numerous much more IP addresses. (the transition from IP v4 to IP v6 should be supported by the system supplier)

ARP protocol
The ARP abbreviation stands for Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol is used to discover the physical address (MAC) based on a known IP address. If needed ARP sends info concerning the needed deal with to all the stations within the network – Broadcast. The stations consequently answer having a message containing their MAC. If the wanted device/station is outside the node/segment, the appropriate router will solution instead of it.

Transport layer
The transport layer is implemented only in terminal gadgets and it adjusts the conduct with the network based on the requirements of the device/application.

Software layer
The software layer is composed of programs that use net services to fulfill the requirements of users. Examples of particular protocols are for instance FTP, DNS and DHCP.
Application protocols use TCP, UDP or both services at the same time. So known as ports are utilized to differentiate between software protocols, they signify a type of label with the application. It’s possible to alter the ports within the settings of the service, but every services has a default port that is not altered for many solutions and is used as an unwritten regular.

” FTP = 21
” DNS = 53
” DHCP = 67 68

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